Gear motors combine ordinary machines with reduction mechanisms, which act to reduce the running speed of the machine for specific tasks and application. This can be helpful when highly precise results or very smooth operations are required. The reduction gear is also very useful as it increases the torque value of the machine. This happens because torque and speed are inversely proportional, so that a low speed machine will have a correspondingly high torque value.
Because power is a function of both torque and speed, choosing a machine with the correct reduction capabilities will provide the right amount of power for your application. High power machines are required in all areas of industry, particularly in factory line equipment such as conveyors and lifts. Powerful but compact gear motors are also very useful in all sorts of household machines, such as kitchen appliances and even children’s toys.
Of course, the most powerful machines are not suitable for every purpose and it is important to choose a model that is of the appropriate size for the job you have in mind. This will prevent energy wastage and will reduce costs and potential for damage significantly. In many cases, choosing a low speed and low power motor will actually provide you with the highest torque. If your machinery needs to move heavy items, drive wheels or turn conveyor belts, then you can easily get away with using a minor power source simply by reducing the speed of your machine.
If you are trying to figure out what size machine is suitable for you, and what corresponding power torque and speed values you should choose, you should consult a gear motor sizing guide to determine the most efficient and effective range for your application. Before choosing the power range of your machine, however, you might need to consider which class is the most suitable for your application. There are three main categories to choose from; worm, spur and helical.
Worm gear motors are generally inexpensive and capable of achieving high ratios. They also run quietly but cause more energy loss than other configurations. Spur models, on the other hand, are more expensive and less able to absorb shock, but they are more compact and efficient, making them preferred choice amongst many engineers and manufacturers. The helical category is similar to spur shapes but has been revised and improved with angled teeth and an increased contact area.